March 25, 2023

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Nd: YVO4 crystal


Fortunately, it has exceptional absorption and also gains to the wavelength of diode radiation. And the transmission area is massive. The output laser has excellent polarization characteristics. These suffice to cover the drawbacks of its small growth dimension.

Nd: YVO4 crystal belongs to the tetragonal system, positive uniaxial crystal. Nd: YVO4 crystal has been commonly recognized as an essential laser material since its development in 1966.
Nonetheless, the scientists found problems in the scattering center, absorption color center, and so on. It is, therefore, difficult to expand premium crystals of the dimension needed for a flash pump.

Fortunately, it has exceptional absorption and also gains to the wavelength of diode radiation. And the transmission area is massive. The output laser has excellent polarization characteristics. These suffice to cover the drawbacks of its small growth dimension.

1. Advantages

Nd: YVO4 crystal has superb properties. Compared to another commonly made use of Nd: YAG crystal (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet crystal), its pump broadband is a lot more substantial. The absorption data transfer efficiency is higher. The stimulated discharge cross-section is extra comprehensive and also has excellent advancement value. Nd: YVO4 crystals are used combined with nonlinear optical crystals such as LBO crystals, BBO crystals, KTP crystals, etc. It can recognize frequency-doubling conversion and also readjust functioning wavelength. The all-solid-state laser constructed from Nd: YVO4 crystal can outcome near-infrared light, green light, blue light, ultraviolet light, and so on.

  • Concerning 808 nm pump data transfer, about the Nd: YAG five times
  • The area at 1064 nm of the stimulated exhaust of radiation is an Nd: YAG three times.
  • The light damage threshold is low, with high slope performance
  • Uniaxial crystal axis, the output of linear polarization

2. Weak points

Compared to the traditional Nd: YAG crystal, Nd: YVO4 has the advantages of a much more substantial absorption coefficient, greater emission cross section, polarization absorption and also discharge characteristics, bigger absorption bandwidth, as well as ignorance of the temperature modification of the diode. As a result, it is widely utilized in LD-pumped solid-state lasers.
Nevertheless, it has a huge discharge cross-section as well as a brief upper energy lifetime. The energy storage ability of Nd: YVO4 is a lot less than that of Nd: YAG. Not conducive to high energy, peak power of the Q – switched pulse outcome. Their benefits are restricted to constant wave output, high average control, and high conversion performance. In addition, the thermal conductivity of Nd: YVO4 is very little, only fifty percent of that of Nd: YAG. For that reason, it is not conducive to attaining high-power constant wave output.

3. Apply

Neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (Nd: YVO4) crystal is a kind of laser crystal with superb efficiency, which is appropriate for producing a laser diode pump, especially a low-power laser. Compared with Nd: YAG, Nd: YVO4 has a greater absorption coefficient and a bigger boosted discharge cross-section.

Laser diode-pumped Nd: YVO4 crystals are incorporated with LBO, BBO, and KTP as well as various other crystals with high nonlinear coefficients. It can achieve much better frequency-doubling conversion efficiency. It can result in near-infrared, green, and also blue ultraviolet and solid-state lasers.

Nd: YVO4 crystals can be widely made use of in optical communication, industrial laser processing, laser varying, semiconductor discovery, information storage, display, laser printing, clinical inspection, equipment, scientific research study as well as other areas.

In addition, Nd: YVO4 diode-pumped solid-state lasers are swiftly changing traditional water-cooled ion lasers and also lamp-pumped lasers in the marketplace, particularly in terms of miniaturization and also single longitudinal setting results.

In the 21st century, numerous downstream sectors of Nd: YVO4 crystal is expanding, as well as the application variety of Nd: YVO4 crystal is continuously increasing with apparent efficiency advantages.

4. Growth method.

In the 1960s, Nd: YVO4 crystal was developed. It was removed from salt metavanadate melt by the air conditioning method. The size of the Nd: YVO4 crystal grown by this technique was tiny. Since then, the development procedure of Nd: YVO4 crystal has actually been put forward, such as the Zhilar method, fire melting method, floating area growth method, Bryman method, and pull method. Presently, the growth methods of Nd: YVO4 crystal are numerous. The illustration approach is the mainstream Nd: YVO4 crystal development procedure, which can expand huge, top-quality crystals.

4.1 Pulling method

Nd3+: YVO4, crystal melting point is extremely high (regarding 1820 ℃), need to make use of gold-dependent crucible growth, gold-dependent crucible will certainly be oxidized at high temperature, need to use a neutral gas (hydrogen) to shield the crucible.

By doing this, growing in an anoxic environment, the dissolved part will decompose into inexpensive vanadium oxide (part of YVO4 will certainly decompose into YVO3), as well as oxygen deficiency will certainly occur in the crystal, causing the generation of the color center.

Growing in an oxygen-rich environment will certainly result in extreme oxidation of the crucible. The lowered episcopes develop inclusions inside the crystal. This will certainly cause solid melt volatilization, resulting in part inconsistency.

By using various expanding atmospheres in numerous phases, the oxygen deficiency in the crystal can be supplemented, the volatilization of raw materials can be inhibited, the single-phase development of the crystal can be assured, as well as the crystal can not be blackened or scattered due to oxygen shortage as a result of hypoxia.